铁山港| 金寨| 鹿邑| 固原| 阿克苏| 兴隆| 霍邱| 虞城| 九龙坡| 阜新市| 富裕| 佛坪| 庆安| 禹城| 错那| 大石桥| 和县| 乌恰| 垣曲| 渭源| 唐河| 同安| 常州| 北流| 西青| 江山| 昂昂溪| 会宁| 新竹市| 闽清| 蚌埠| 临县| 沾益| 鹤岗| 泰来| 丰镇| 福安| 夏邑| 西华| 宜秀| 西藏| 铁岭市| 朝阳县| 东川| 蔡甸| 顺平| 韶关| 民勤| 岳普湖| 绍兴市| 潞西| 宜春| 海丰| 靖安| 曲沃| 府谷| 黄梅| 岚县| 鹿泉| 鹤壁| 当雄| 鞍山| 云霄| 泗洪| 金华| 东兴| 泽普| 沈阳| 丽江| 宝丰| 翼城| 贾汪| 兴义| 固安| 盘锦| 康平| 台中县| 桃源| 武汉| 马尾| 四会| 蒙自| 开鲁| 淮南| 杭州| 分宜| 大方| 喜德| 双流| 林甸| 广宁| 义马| 青冈| 凤台| 汶上| 九台| 西平| 贵港| 眉县| 彝良| 昂仁| 尖扎| 隆化| 图木舒克| 平乡| 北辰| 带岭| 咸宁| 洋山港| 崇义| 大丰| 阿图什| 布尔津| 长治市| 范县| 永靖| 铜陵市| 台中县| 公安| 湘东| 怀安| 丘北| 永清| 和顺| 宁河| 新会| 子洲| 岚县| 南丹| 伊宁市| 茌平| 古交| 富平| 宕昌| 张家港| 宜君| 泰和| 平和| 交城| 阿图什| 永清| 渑池| 光山| 田阳| 巴里坤| 宿豫| 大足| 岷县| 西畴| 本溪市| 临沭| 仁化| 台北县| 余干| 遵义市| 获嘉| 韩城| 白云矿| 磁县| 西乌珠穆沁旗| 霸州| 始兴| 浪卡子| 高要| 卫辉| 高明| 梧州| 米脂| 西安| 灌南| 萍乡| 蕲春| 绥芬河| 福海| 喀喇沁左翼| 扬州| 察隅| 哈密| 晋江| 林芝镇| 拉孜| 建宁| 合阳| 大姚| 中方| 松原| 恒山| 桑日| 富川| 南川| 察隅| 罗定| 芜湖县| 江达| 西山| 涪陵| 龙岩| 伊宁县| 黄梅| 寿宁| 新野| 全南| 洛宁| 吉水| 隆安| 广元| 习水| 石嘴山| 西林| 南汇| 华池| 永州| 蒙阴| 都匀| 蓬溪| 阳西| 吉首| 双峰| 陇南| 隆安| 水富| 彝良| 盂县| 带岭| 江源| 耒阳| 建湖| 广南| 峨眉山| 察哈尔右翼中旗| 邵阳县| 陆河| 高县| 泽州| 浦北| 济宁| 浙江| 开江| 延津| 科尔沁右翼前旗| 尖扎| 通化县| 漯河| 乌尔禾| 保德| 江城| 乐陵| 青龙| 琼海| 盐津| 宜黄| 盐源| 芜湖县| 澄迈| 西华| 潘集| 恩平| 稻城| 辽阳县| 青阳| 红岗| 新余| 潼南|

烂牙、致癌、毁全身,医生劝你戒掉这八个习惯

2019-08-20 20:08 来源:腾讯

  烂牙、致癌、毁全身,医生劝你戒掉这八个习惯

  ApoliceofficerstumbleswhilerunningawayfromanewpyroclasticflowspewedbytheFuegovolcanointhecommunityofSanMiguelLosLotesinEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)ApoliceofficerstumbleswhilerunningawayfromanewpyroclasticflowspewedbytheFuegovolcanointhecommunityofSanMiguelLosLotesinEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)AerialviewoftheaftermathofavolcanoeruptioninEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)Rescuersuseabackhoeloadertoclearastreetattheash-coveredvillageofSanMiguelLosLotes,inEscuintladepartment,about35kmsouthwestofGuatemalaCity,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)ApoliceofficerstumbleswhilerunningawayfromanewpyroclasticflowspewedbytheFuegovolcanointhecommunityofSanMiguelLosLotesinEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)AerialviewoftheaftermathofavolcanoeruptioninEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)AroadsigncoveredwithashisseenafterFuegovolcanoeruptedinEscuintla,Guatemala,June4,,includingatleastthreechildren,werekilledandnearly300injuredonSundayinthemostviolenteruptionofGuatemala’sFuegovolcanoinmorethanfourdecades,officialssaid.(Photo/Agencies)PhototakenonMay31,2018showsghostnetsduringtheexhibition"SecondNature"inAthens,,thedeadliestoceantrashandamajorenvironmentalthreatworldwide,weretransformedinto3Dprintedseashellsinanexhibitionentitled"SecondNature"shandmarinemammals.(Xinhua/MariosLolos)A3Dprinterprocessesaghostnetduringtheexhibition"SecondNature"inAthens,Greece,onMay31,,thedeadliestoceantrashandamajorenvironmentalthreatworldwide,weretransformedinto3Dprintedseashellsinanexhibitionentitled"SecondNature"shandmarinemammals.(Xinhua/MariosLolos)FotiniSetaki,GreekarchitectandfounderofthedesignandresearchstudioNewRaw,standsnexttoa3D-printedtableduringtheexhibition"SecondNature"inAthens,Greece,onMay31,,thedeadliestoceantrashandamajorenvironmentalthreatworldwide,weretransformedinto3Dprintedseashellsinanexhibitionentitled"SecondNature"shandmarinemammals.(Xinhua/MariosLolos)3D-printedobjectsmadebymarineplasticsandghostnetsareondisplayduringtheexhibition"SecondNature"inAthens,Greece,onMay31,,thedeadliestoceantrashandamajorenvironmentalthreatworldwide,weretransformedinto3Dprintedseashellsinanexhibitionentitled"SecondNature"shandmarinemammals.(Xinhua/MariosLolos)PanosSakkas(L),co-founderofthedesignandresearchstudioNewRaw,presentsaseashellduringtheexhibition"SecondNature"inAthens,Greece,onMay31,,thedeadliestoceantrashandamajorenvironmentalthreatworldwide,weretransformedinto3Dprintedseashellsinanexhibitionentitled"SecondNature"shandmarinemammals.(Xinhua/MariosLolos)FotiniSetaki(L)andPanosSakkas,co-foundersofthedesignandresearchstudioNewRaw,setupa3Dprinterduringtheexhibition"SecondNature"inAthens,Greece,onMay31,,thedeadliestoceantrashandamajorenvironmentalthreatworldwide,weretransformedinto3Dprintedseashellsinanexhibitionentitled"SecondNature"shandmarinemammals.(Xinhua/MariosLolos)

GiantpandaMengMenggavebirthtotwinfemalecubsattheChengduResearchBaseofGiantPandaBreedinginSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonMay23,2018.(Photo/ChengduResearchBaseofGiantPandaBreeding)GiantpandaMengMenggavebirthtotwinfemalecubsattheChengduResearchBaseofGiantPandaBreedinginSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonMay23,2018.(Photo/ChengduResearchBaseofGiantPandaBreeding)GiantpandaMengMenggavebirthtotwinfemalecubsattheChengduResearchBaseofGiantPandaBreedinginSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonMay23,2018.(Photo/ChengduResearchBaseofGiantPandaBreeding)GiantpandaMengMenggavebirthtotwinfemalecubsattheChengduResearchBaseofGiantPandaBreedinginSouthwestChinasSichuanProvinceonMay23,2018.(Photo/ChengduResearchBaseofGiantPandaBreeding)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)PhototakenonJune5,2018showsblindcustomersenjoyingtheservicesatabookstore,friendlytovisuallyimpairedpeople,inKunmingCity,SouthwestChina’,runbyaprivatecompany,helpstheblindtousesmartphones,playgamesandlearnaboutmusic.(Photo:ChinaNewsService/RenDong)

  (CNS),astate-levelnewsagencysponsoredandestablishedbyChinesejournalistsandrenownedoverseasChineseexpertsonOctober1,(),,,includingin-depthcoverage,featurestoriesandvisualcontent,withtopicssuchascurrentevents,art,lifestyle,(CNS)isnotonlyastate-levelnewsagencyspreadingnewsworldwide,butalsoaninternationalnewsagencywithsubscribersinTaiwan,HongKongandMacao,,formervicechairmanoftheStandingCommitteeoftheNationalPeoplesCongress,,therewereothermajorsponsorsandbuilders,suchasJinZhonghua,HuYuzhi,,awell-knownexpertoninternationalissues,,CNSwastheInternationalNewsService,,adatabaseofinforma(includingwritings,photosandspecialarticles)andamodernmethodofreporting(mainlythroughinternet,videosandSMS)providedtooverse,,HongKongandMacao,aswellasbranchesorreportstationsinTokyo,Bangkok,KualaLumpur,NewYork,Washington,LosAngeles,SanFrancisco,Vancouver,London,Paris,,andnewsreleasecentershavebeenestablishedinBeijing,,multi-levelandmulti-functionnewsreleasesystem,CNSprovidesallkindsofnewsandinformation,’,,1999,theheadquartersofCNSlauncheditsofficialwebsite,namedChinanews().ChinanewsisconsideredoneofChina’smostimportantonlinenewssources.Nine103-year-oldCadburychocolatebarshavebeendiscoveredamongthemementosofRichardBullimore,whoservn$2,600atauctiononJune5,2018.(Photo/VCG)Nine103-year-oldCadburychocolatebarshavebeendiscoveredamongthemementosofRichardBullimore,whoservn$2,600atauctiononJune5,2018.(Photo/VCG)Nine103-year-oldCadburychocolatebarshavebeendiscoveredamongstthemementosofRichardBullimore,whoservn$2,600atauctiononJune5,2018.(Photo/VCG)

  AStarbuckslogoispicturedinManhattan,NewYork,theUnitedStates,May29,,000company-ownedstoresintheUnitedStatesonTuesdayafternoontooffernearly175,000employeesamandatoryanti-biastraining.(Xinhua/LiMuzi)PeoplewalkintoaStarbucksstoreinManhattan,NewYork,theUnitedStates,May29,,000company-ownedstoresintheUnitedStatesonTuesdayafternoontooffernearly175,000employeesamandatoryanti-biastraining.(Xinhua/LiMuzi)AStarbuckslogoispicturedinManhattan,NewYork,theUnitedStates,May29,,000company-ownedstoresintheUnitedStatesonTuesdayafternoontooffernearly175,000employeesamandatoryanti-biastraining.(Xinhua/LiMuzi)AStarbuckslogoispicturedinManhattan,NewYork,theUnitedStates,May29,,000company-ownedstoresintheUnitedStatesonTuesdayafternoontooffernearly175,000employeesamandatoryanti-biastraining.(Xinhua/LiMuzi)AnoticeisseenataclosedStarbucksstoreinManhattan,NewYork,theUnitedStates,May29,,000company-ownedstoresintheUnitedStatesonTuesdayafternoontooffernearly175,000employeesamandatoryanti-biastraining.(Xinhua/LiMuzi)AnaerialviewofacolorfulsaltlakeinYuncheng,ShanxiProvince,June6,,thesaltlake,knownasChinas"DeadSea",displaysdifferentcolorsasaresultofmicroorganismsinthewater.(Photo/IC)AnaerialviewofacolorfulsaltlakeinYuncheng,ShanxiProvince,June6,,thesaltlake,knownasChinas"DeadSea",displaysdifferentcolorsasaresultofmicroorganismsinthewater.(Photo/IC)AnaerialviewofacolorfulsaltlakeinYuncheng,ShanxiProvince,June6,,thesaltlake,knownasChinas"DeadSea",displaysdifferentcolorsasaresultofmicroorganismsinthewater.(Photo/IC)

(LtoR)IvoryCoastsAbdramaneDembele,2m35,FrancesBrahimTakioullah,2m46andArmeniasArshavirGrigoryan,2m33,walkinthecrowdontheChamps-ElyseesAvenueinParis,onJune1,stallestpeoplemetinParisforaweekend.(Photo/Agencies)SomeoftheworldstallestmenwalkontheChamps-ElyseesAvenueinParis,onJune1,2018,duringameetingofworldtallestmen.(Photo/Agencies)SomeoftheworldstallestmenwalkontheChamps-ElyseesAvenueinParis,onJune1,2018,duringameetingofworldtallestmen.(Photo/Agencies)SomeoftheworldstallestmenwalkontheChamps-ElyseesAvenueinParis,onJune1,2018,duringameetingofworldtallestmen.(Photo/Agencies)

  PhototakenonMarch15,2018showsculturalrelicspreservedatDanaTempleinYushuTibetanAutonomousPrefecture,northwestChinaerofrelevantrelics.(Xinhua/WuGang)AmonkisseenatDanaTempleinYushuTibetanAutonomousPrefecture,northwestChinasQinghaiProvince,March15,erofrelevantrelics.(Xinhua/WuGang)PhototakenonMarch15,2018showsculturalrelicspreservedatDanaTempleinYushuTibetanAutonomousPrefecture,northwestChinaerofrelevantrelics.(Xinhua/WuGang)PhototakenonMarch15,2018showstheDanaTempleinYushuTibetanAutonomousPrefecture,northwestChinaerofrelevantrelics.(Xinhua/WuGang)AerialphototakenonMarch15,2018showstheDanaTempleinYushuTibetanAutonomousPrefecture,northwestChinaerofrelevantrelics.(Xinhua/WuGang)PhototakenonMarch15,2018showsculturalrelicspreservedatDanaTempleinYushuTibetanAutonomousPrefecture,northwestChinaerofrelevantrelics.(Xinhua/WuGang)PhototakenonMarch15,2018showstheDanaTempleinYushuTibetanAutonomousPrefecture,northwestChinaerofrelevantrelics.(Xinhua/WuGang)

  AwomanisseenatGhandrukvillageofKaskidistrictinNepal,June6,2018.(Xinhua/SunilSharma)MulescarryingemptygascylindersproceedtowardsGhandrukvillagefromChhomrongvillageofKaskidistrictinNepal,June6,2018.(Xinhua/SunilSharma)PeoplecarryironnetsusedforconstructionatChhomrongvillageofKaskidistrictinNepal,June6,2018.(Xinhua/SunilSharma)AmanworksinthefieldatChhomrongvillageofKaskidistrictinNepal,June6,2018.(Xinhua/SunilSharma)LocalscutthehairofsheepatChhomrongvillageofKaskidistrictinNepal,June6,2018.(Xinhua/SunilSharma)AnaerialviewofacolorfulsaltlakeinYuncheng,ShanxiProvince,June6,,thesaltlake,knownasChinas"DeadSea",displaysdifferentcolorsasaresultofmicroorganismsinthewater.(Photo/IC)AnaerialviewofacolorfulsaltlakeinYuncheng,ShanxiProvince,June6,,thesaltlake,knownasChinas"DeadSea",displaysdifferentcolorsasaresultofmicroorganismsinthewater.(Photo/IC)AnaerialviewofacolorfulsaltlakeinYuncheng,ShanxiProvince,June6,,thesaltlake,knownasChinas"DeadSea",displaysdifferentcolorsasaresultofmicroorganismsinthewater.(Photo/IC)

  Awomangrillsfish,meat,potatoslicesandsweetpotatoonthebonnetofacarinBinzhouCity,EastChina’sShandongProvince,June5,2018,(Photo/SipaPhoto)Awomangrillsfish,meat,potatoslicesandsweetpotatoonthebonnetofacarinBinzhouCity,EastChina’sShandongProvince,June5,2018,(Photo/SipaPhoto)Awomangrillsfish,meat,potatoslicesandsweetpotatoonthebonnetofacarinBinzhouCity,EastChina’sShandongProvince,June5,2018,(Photo/SipaPhoto)

  FrenchmarathonswimmerBenoitBenLecomteprepareshimselfinChoshi,ChibaprefectureinJapanonJune5,2,kickingoffanepicquesttoswim9,000kilometers(5,600miles)fromTokyotoSanFrancisco,throughshark-infestedwaterschokingwithplasticwaste.(Photo/Agencies)FrenchmarathonswimmerBenoitBenLecomte(L),takesthestartofhisattemptofswimmingacrossthePacificOceaninChoshi,ChibaprefectureinJapanonJune5,2018surroundedbyhischildren,Max(C)andAna(R).BenLecomtedivedintothePacificOceanonJune5,kickingoffanepicquesttoswim9,000kilometers(5,600miles)fromTokyotoSanFrancisco,throughshark-infestedwaterschokingwithplasticwaste.(Photo/Agencies)FrenchmarathonswimmerBenoitBenLecomte,takesthestartofhisattemptofswimmingacrossthePacificOceaninChoshi,ChibaprefectureinJapanonJune5,,kickingoffanepicquesttoswim9,000kilometers(5,600miles)fromTokyotoSanFrancisco,throughshark-infestedwaterschokingwithplasticwaste.(Photo/Agencies)FrenchmarathonswimmerBenoitBenLecomteprepareshimselfinChoshi,ChibaprefectureinJapanonJune5,2,kickingoffanepicquesttoswim9,000kilometers(5,600miles)fromTokyotoSanFrancisco,throughshark-infestedwaterschokingwithplasticwaste.(Photo/Agencies)TheFengyun-2Hmeteorologicalsatellite,carriedbyaLongMarch-3Arocket,islaunchedfromtheXichangSatelliteLaunchCenterinsouthwestChinasSichuanProvince,June5,2018.(Xinhua/LiangKeyan)TheFengyun-2Hmeteorologicalsatellite,carriedbyaLongMarch-3Arocket,islaunchedfromtheXichangSatelliteLaunchCenterinsouthwestChinasSichuanProvince,June5,2018.(Xinhua/LiuKun)TheFengyun-2Hmeteorologicalsatellite,carriedbyaLongMarch-3Arocket,islaunchedfromtheXichangSatelliteLaunchCenterinsouthwestChinasSichuanProvince,June5,2018.(Xinhua/LiuKun)

  AcrestedibisfeedsnestlingsatTianlingVillageofYangxianCountyinHanzhongCity,northwestChinasShaanxiProvince,June2,fsevenwildcrestedibisesonMay23,1981inYangxian,,,,000squarekilometers.(Xinhua/TaoMing)AcoupleofcrestedibistakescareoftheirnestlingsatTianlingVillageofYangxianCountyinHanzhongCity,northwestChinasShaanxiProvince,June2,fsevenwildcrestedibisesonMay23,1981inYangxian,,,,000squarekilometers.(Xinhua/TaoMing)AcrestedibisfeedsnestlingsatTianlingVillageofYangxianCountyinHanzhongCity,northwestChinasShaanxiProvince,June2,fsevenwildcrestedibisesonMay23,1981inYangxian,,,,000squarekilometers.(Xinhua/TaoMing)AcrestedibisfeedsnestlingsatTianlingVillageofYangxianCountyinHanzhongCity,northwestChinasShaanxiProvince,June2,fsevenwildcrestedibisesonMay23,1981inYangxian,,,,000squarekilometers.(Xinhua/TaoMing)AcrestedibisfeedsnestlingsatTianlingVillageofYangxianCountyinHanzhongCity,northwestChinasShaanxiProvince,June2,fsevenwildcrestedibisesonMay23,1981inYangxian,,,,000squarekilometers.(Xinhua/TaoMing)AcrestedibistakescareofnestlingsatTianlingVillageofYangxianCountyinHanzhongCity,northwestChinasShaanxiProvince,June2,fsevenwildcrestedibisesonMay23,1981inYangxian,,,,000squarekilometers.(Xinhua/TaoMing)AcrestedibistakescareofnestlingsatTianlingVillageofYangxianCountyinHanzhongCity,northwestChinasShaanxiProvince,June2,fsevenwildcrestedibisesonMay23,1981inYangxian,,,,000squarekilometers.(Xinhua/TaoMing)AcoupleofcrestedibistakescareoftheirnestlingsatTianlingVillageofYangxianCountyinHanzhongCity,northwestChinasShaanxiProvince,June2,fsevenwildcrestedibisesonMay23,1981inYangxian,,,,000squarekilometers.(Xinhua/TaoMing)AcoupleofcrestedibistakescareoftheirnestlingsatTianlingVillageofYangxianCountyinHanzhongCity,northwestChinasShaanxiProvince,June2,fsevenwildcrestedibisesonMay23,1981inYangxian,,,,000squarekilometers.(Xinhua/TaoMing)

  (ECNS)--ChineseresearchershaveconfirmedtheexistenceofwildpopulationsofNorthChineseleopards,anendangeredsubspecies,intheZiwulingforestarAdministrationa,anassociateprofessorattheuniversity,saidresearchersnowhaveabetterpictureofthespeciesinthewildafterfindingtrareverfoundinChina,,infraredcamerashavetakenimagesofatlea,quantity,habitat,andgeneticmakeupoftheNorthChineseleopard,atopspeciesintheregion’sforestecosystem,nandscientificresearchinordertosolvethemysteryoftheleopard’leecologicalsystemfromtheTaihangMountainstotheLoessPlateauinnorthernShaanxihansandtheshrinkingspaceoftheirhabitats.

  PhototakenonJune2,2018showsthenightviewnearWusiSquareinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)PhototakenonJune1,2018showsthereflectionofWusiSquareonaballooninQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/JinLiangkuai)PhototakenonJune1,2018showsthereflectionofWusiSquareonaballooninQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/JinLiangkuai)PanoramaphototakenonJune2,2018showsthenightviewofWusiSquareinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/YinGang)PanoramaphototakenonJune2,2018showsthenightviewofWusiSquareinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/YinGang)PhototakenonJune4,2018showsthenightviewofZhanqiaoPierinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/JiangKehong)PhototakenonJune4,2018showsthenightviewofWusiSquareinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/MaNing)PhototakenonMay31,2018showsthenightviewofOlympicSailingCenterinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/WangJianhua)PhototakenonMay3,2018showsthenightviewofFushanBayinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/LiZiheng)PhototakenonMay7,2018showsthenightviewofFushanBayinQingdao,eastChina(SCO)SummitisscheduledforJune9to10inQingdao.(Xinhua/GuoXulei)LaraJackson,34,ofManchester,Britain,takesaphotoaslavalightsuptheskyabovePahoaduringongoingeruptionsoftheKilaueaVolcanoinHawaii,,June2,2018.(Photo/Agencies)LavalightsuptheskyabovePahoaduringongoingeruptionsoftheKilaueaVolcanoinHawaii,,June2,2018.(Photo/Agencies)PeoplewatchaslavalightsuptheskyabovePahoaduringongoingeruptionsoftheKilaueaVolcanoinHawaii,,June2,2018.(Photo/Agencies)DarrylSumiki,52,ofHilo,watchesaslavalightsuptheskyabovePahoaduringongoingeruptionsoftheKilaueaVolcanoinHawaii,,June2,2018.(Photo/Agencies)

  

  烂牙、致癌、毁全身,医生劝你戒掉这八个习惯

 
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伽利略(Galileo Galilei,伽利略·伽利莱,2019-08-20 --- 2019-08-20),意大利物理学家、天文学家和哲学家,近代实验科学的先驱者。伽利略对现代科学思想的发展作出重大贡献。他是最早(2019-08-20)用望远镜观察天体的天文学家,曾用大量事实证明地球环绕太阳旋转,否定地心学说。2019-08-20,伽利略蒙冤360年后,终于获得梵蒂冈教皇的平反。

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    中文名
    伽利略
    英文名
    Galileo?Galilei
    籍贯
    意大利,比萨
    性别
    国籍
    意大利
    出生年月
    2019-08-20
    去世年月
    2019-08-20
    职业
    科学家、天文学家、物理学家
    毕业院校
    比萨大学
    代表作品
    《论两种新科学》?;《星际信使》;《流体力学》等

    1职业生涯 

    编辑本段 回目录

    早年活动时期 

    1583年,伽利略在比萨教堂里注意到一盏悬灯的摆动,随后用线悬铜球作模拟实验,确证了微小摆动的等时性以及摆长对周期的影响,由此创制出脉博计用来测量短时间间隔。1585年因家贫退学,担任家庭教师,但仍奋力自学。1586年,他发明了浮力天平,并写出论文《小天平》。1587年他带着关于固体重心计算法的论文到罗马大学求见著名数学家和历法家C.克拉维乌斯教授,大受称赞和鼓励。克拉维乌斯回赠他罗马大学教授P.瓦拉的逻辑学讲义与自然哲学讲义,这对于他以后的工作大有帮助。 

    1588年他在佛罗伦萨研究院做了关于但丁《神曲》中炼狱图形构想的学术演讲,其文学与数学才华大受人们赞扬。次年发表了关于几种固体重心计算法的论文,其中包括若干静力学新定理。由于这些成就,当年比萨大学便聘请他任教,讲授几何学与天文学。第二年他发现了摆线。当时比萨大学教材均为亚里士多德学派的学者所撰,书中充斥着神学与形而上学的教条。伽利略经常发表辛辣的反对意见,由此受到校内该学派的歧视和排挤。1591年其父病逝,家庭负担加重,他便决定离开比萨。

    帕多瓦时期

    1592年伽利略转到帕多瓦大学任教。帕多瓦属于威尼斯公国,远离罗马,不受教廷直接控制,学术思想比较自由。在此良好气氛中,他经常参加校内外各种学术文化活动,与具有各种思想观点的同事论辩。此时他一面吸取前辈如N.F.塔尔塔利亚、G.B.贝内代蒂、F.科门迪诺等人的数学与力学研究成果,一面经常考察工厂、作坊、、矿井和各项军用民用工程,广泛结交各行业的技术员工,帮他们解决技术难题,从中吸取生产技术知识和各种新经验,并得到启发。在此时期,他深入而系统地研究了落体运动、抛射体运动、静力学、水力学以及一些土木建筑和军事建筑等;发现了惯性原理,研制了温度计和望远镜。 

    1604年天空出现超新星,亮光持续18个月之久。他便趁机在威尼斯作几次科普演讲,宣传哥白尼学说。由于讲得精采动听,听众逐次增多,最后达千余人。1609年7月,盛传一荷兰眼镜工人发明了供人玩赏的望远镜。他未见到实物,思考几日后,用风琴管和凸凹透镜各一片制成一具望远镜,倍率为3,后又提高到9。他邀请威尼斯参议员到塔楼顶层用望远镜观看远景,观者无不惊喜万分。参议院随后决定他为帕多瓦大学的终身教授。1610年初,他又将望远镜放大率提高到33,用来观察日月星辰,新发现甚多,如月球表面高低不平,月球与其他行星所发的光都是太阳的反射光,水星有4颗卫星,银河原是无数发光体的总汇,土星有多变的椭圆外形等等,开辟了天文学的新天地。是年3月,出版了他的《星空信使》一书,震撼全欧。随后又发现金星盈亏与大小变化,这对日心说是一强有力的支持。伽利略日后回顾在帕多瓦的18年时,认为这是他一生中工作最开展、精神最舒畅的时期。事实上,这也是他一生中学术成就最多的时期。

    伽利略伽利略



    托斯卡纳时期

    20年来伽利略在物理学和天文学研究上的丰硕成果,激起了他学术上的更大企求。为了取得有充裕时间致力于科学研究,1610年春,他辞去大学教职,接受托斯卡纳公国大公聘请,担任宫廷首席数学家和哲学家的闲职与比萨大学首席数学教授的荣誉职位。为了使科学免受教会干预,伽利略曾多次去罗马活动。1611年5月,在罗马大学的大会上,几个高职位的神父公开宣布了伽利略的天文学成就。同年,他观察到太阳黑子及其运动,对比黑子的运动规律和圆运动的投影原理,论证了太阳黑子是在太阳表面上;他还发现了太阳有自转。1613年他发表了3篇讨论太阳黑子问题的通信稿。另外,1612年他又出版了《水中浮体对话集》一书。1615年,一诡诈的教士集团和教会中许多与伽利略敌对的人联合攻击伽利略为哥白尼学说辩护的论点,控告他违反基督教义。他闻讯后,于是年冬第三次去罗马,力图挽回自己的声誉,企求教廷不因自己保持哥白尼观点而受到惩处,也不公开压制他宣传哥白尼学说,教廷默认了前一要求,但拒绝了后者。教皇保罗五世在1616年下达了著名的“1616年禁令”,禁止他以口头的或文字的形式保持、传授或捍卫日心说。 

    1624年,他第四次去罗马,希望故友新任教皇乌尔邦八世能够同情并理解他的意愿,以维护新兴科学的生机。他先后谒见6次,力图说明日心说可以与基督教教义相协调,说“圣经是教人如何进天国,而不是教人知道天体是如何运转的”;并且试图以此说服一些大主教,但毫无效果。乌尔邦八世坚持“1616年禁令”不变;只允许他写一部同时介绍日心说和地心说的书,但对两种学说的态度不得有所偏倚,而且都要写成数学假设性的。

    教廷的迫害和晚年生活

    年近七旬而又体弱多病的伽利略被迫在寒冬季节抱病前往罗马,在严刑威胁下被审讯了三次,根本不容审辩。几经折磨,终于在2019-08-20在圣玛丽亚修女院的大厅上由10名枢机主教联席宣判,主要罪名是违背“1616年禁令”和圣经教义。伽利略被迫跪在冰冷的石板地上,在教廷已写好的“悔过书”上签字。主审官宣布:判处伽利略终身监禁;《对话》必须焚绝,并且禁止出版或重印他的其他著作。此判决书立即通报整个天主教世界,凡是设有大学的城市均须聚众宣读,借此以一儆百。 伽利略既是勤奋的科学家,又是虔诚的天主教徒,深信科学家的任务是探索自然规律,而教会的职能是管理人们的灵魂,不应互相侵犯。所以他受审之前不想逃脱,受审之时也不公开反抗,而是始终服从教廷的处置。他认为教廷在神学范围之外行使权力极不明智,但只能私下有所不满。显然,G.布鲁诺的被处火刑和T.康帕内拉的被长期打入死牢,这两位意大利杰出的哲学家的遭遇,给他精神上投下了可怕的阴影。 

    宗教裁判所的判决随后又改为在家软禁,指定由他的学生和故友A.皮柯罗米尼大主教在锡耶纳的私宅中看管他,规定禁止会客,每天书写材料均需上缴等。在皮柯罗米尼的精心护理和鼓励下,伽利略重行振作起来,接受皮柯罗米尼的建议继续研究无争议的物理学问题。于是他仍用《对话》中的三个对话人物,以对话体裁,和较朴素的文笔,将他最成熟的科学思想和研究成果撰写成《关于两门新科学的对话与数学证明对话集》。两门新科学是指材料力学和动力学。这部书稿1636年就已完成,由于教会禁止出版他的任何著作,他只好托一位威尼斯友人秘密携出国境,1638年在荷兰莱顿出版。 伽利略在皮柯罗米尼家中刚过了5个月,便有人写匿名信向教廷控告皮柯罗米尼厚待伽利略。教廷乃勒令伽利略于当年12月迁往佛罗伦萨附近的阿切特里他自己的故居,由他的大女儿维姬尼亚照料,禁例依旧。她对父亲照料妥贴,但4个月后竟先于父亲病故。 伽利略多次要求外出治病,均未获准。1637年双目失明。次年才获准住在其子家中。在这期间探望他的除托斯卡纳大公外,还有英国著名诗人、政论家J.弥尔顿和法国科学家、哲学家P.伽桑迪。他的学生和老友B.卡斯泰里还和他讨论过利用木卫星计算地面经度的问题。这时教廷对他的限制和监视已明显放松了。 

    1639年夏,伽利略获准接受聪慧好学的18岁青年V.维维亚尼为他的最后一名学生,并可在他身边照料,这位青年使他非常满意。1641年10月卡斯泰里又介绍自己的学生和过去的秘书E.托里拆利前往陪伴。他们和这位双目失明的老科学家共同讨论如何应用摆的等时性设计机械钟,还讨论过碰撞理论、月球的天平动、大气压下矿井水柱高度等问题,因此,直到临终前他仍在从事科学研究。 

    伽利略于2019-08-20病逝,葬仪草率简陋,直到下一世纪,遗骨才迁到家乡的大教堂。 

    伽利略伽利略



    2主要贡献 

    编辑本段 回目录

    天文学

    他是利用望远镜观测天体取得大量成果的第一位科学家。这些成果包括:发现月球表面凹凸不平,木星有四个卫星(现称伽利略卫星),太阳黑子和太阳的自转,金星、木星的盈亏现象以及银河由无数恒星组成等。他用实验证实了哥白尼的“地动说”,彻底否定了统治千余年的亚里士多德和托勒密的“天动说”。 

    哲学 

    他一生坚持与唯心论和教会的经院哲学作斗争,主张用具体的实验来认识自然规律,认为经验是理论知识的源泉。他不承认世界上有绝对真理和掌握真理的绝对权威,反对盲目迷信。他承认物质的客观性、多样性和宇宙的无限性,这些观点对发展唯物主义的哲学具有重要的意义。但由于历史的局限性,他强调只有可归纳为数量特征的物质属性才是客观存在的。 

    伽利略因为支持日心说入狱后,“放弃”了日心说,他说,"考虑到种种阻碍,两点之间最短的不一定是直线",正是因为他有这样的思想,暂时的放弃换得永远的支持,没有像布鲁诺那样去壮烈,但却可以为科学继续贡献自己的力量。

    力学   

    伽利略是第一个把实验引进力学的科学家,他利用实验和数学相结合的方法确定了一些重要的力学定律。1582年前后,他经过长久的实验观察和数学推算,得到了摆的等时性定律。接着在1585年因家庭经济困难辍学。离开比萨大学期间,他深入研究古希腊学者欧几里得、阿基米德等人的著作。他根据杠杆原理和浮力原理写出了第一篇题为《天平》的论文。不久又写了论文《论重力》,第一次揭示了重力和重心的实质并给出准确的数学表达式,因此声名大振。与此同时,他对亚里士多德的许多观点提出质疑。     

    在1589~1591年间,伽利略对落体运动作了细致的观察。从实验和理论上否定了统治千余年的亚里士多德关于“落体运动法则”确立了正确的“自由落体定律”,即在忽略空气阻力条件下,重量不同的球在下落时同时落地,下落的速度与重量无关。根据伽利略晚年的学生V.维维亚尼的记载,落体实验是在比萨斜塔上公开进行的:1589年某一天,伽利略将一个重10磅,一个重1磅的铁球同时抛下,几乎同时落地,在场的竞争者个个目瞪口呆,在大笑中耸耸肩走了。但在伽利略的著作中并未明确说明实验是在比萨斜塔上进行的。因此近年来对此存在争议。   

    伽利略对运动基本概念,包括重心、速度、加速度等都作了详尽研究并给出了严格的数学表达式。他在做球滚下的实验中得出力和加速度的关系,证明在重力作用下,不论物体质量的大小,所得到的加速度都是相同的。这在力学史上是一个里程碑。有了伽利略的重力和加速度的关系,牛顿后来才能把重力推广到所有的力,这个关系都适用;再加上力和受力作用物体质量的关系,就成为牛顿的第二运动定律。这样。力学中的动力学部分才能建立在科学的基础之上。而在伽利略之前,只有静力学部分有定量的描述。 伽利略曾正式地提出过惯性定律;他在1553年在斜面上做球滚下实验得出这样的结论;运动的物体在不受外力作用下(一般为摩擦力)总保留原来的速度。他称为惯性原理:“一个沿水平方向运动的物体会沿相同方向和速度继续运动,除非受到外力的干忧”。牛顿后来把伽利略的这个惯性原理称为他的第一运动定律。   

    伽利略还提出过合力定律,抛射体运动规律,并确立了伽利略相对性原理. 伽利略在力学方面的贡献是多方面的。这在他晚年写出的力学著作《关于两门新科学的谈话和数学证明》中有详细的描述。在这本不朽著作中,除动力学外,还有不少关于材料力学的内容。

    伽利略伽利略



    3人物名言 

    编辑本段 回目录

     “追求科学,需要有特殊的勇敢,思考是人类最大的快乐。”    

     “生命犹如铁砧,愈被敲打,愈能发出火花。”   

     “你无法教别人任何东西,你只能帮助别人发现一些东西。”   

     “科学不是一个人的事业”    

     “真理不在蒙满灰尘的权威著作中,而是在宇宙、自然界这部伟大的无字书中。”    

    “世界是一本以数学语言写成的书。”    “一切推理都必须从观察与实验中得来。”——伽利略

    参考资料

    [添加]
    [1].伽利略生平简介
    [2].伽利略的故事
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